Single Rate Method
Based on this translational approach, the financial statements of foreign operations, which are considered by the parent company as an autonomous entity, has the reporting of their own domicile. This is a local accounting environment where foreign affiliates are mentraksaksikan his business affairs. To maintain the “flavor” of the local currency reports, a way must be found so that translation can be implemented with minimal distortion. The best way is the use of the method of exchange rate policies.
Since all financial reports of foreign exchange is actually multiplied by a konstansta, this translation method to maintain its financial results and the original relation (eg financial ratios) in the consolidated statements of individual entities that are consolidated. Only the form of overseas estimates, not the essence, the change in the method of exchange rate policies.
Multiple Rate Methods
Methods of combining multiple exchange rate exchange rate historically runs and in the process of translation. 3 Such methods are discussed below.
Force-historical method. Based on the true-historical approach, which is popular in the U.S. and other places before the year 1976, current assets and current liabilities of a subsidiary abroad are translated into the reporting currency using the exchange rate of its parent company applies. Assets and liabilities are non-smooth translated with historical rates.
Items of income statement, except for depreciation and amortization, are translated at the exchange rate on average each month of operation or on the basis of the weighted average of the entire period to be reported. Depreciation and amortization are translated using historical exchange rates prevailing at the time of the relevant asset is obtained.
This methodology is, unfortunately, has some drawbacks. For example, this method is less choose a conceptual justification. Existing definitions of assets and liabilities and non-current classification does not explain why such a manner which will determine the exchange rate used in the process transiasi.
Monetary-nonmonetary method. As with any true-historical method, the method moniter using pattern-classification of non-monetary balance sheet to determine the appropriate exchange rate translation.
Due to monetary items in cash settled; usage rate applicable to translate the items of foreign exchange domestic currency equivalent yield that reflects the realizable value or value of the solution.
Temporal method according to the temporal approach, translational currency conversion is a process of measurement (ie, repeated presentation of a particular value). Therefore, this method can not be used to change the attributes of an item that is being measured; this method can only change the unit of measurement. Balance of foreign currency translation, for example, just change the (restate) the denomination of inventory. not the actual assessment. In U.S. GAAP, assets are measured based on jumiah cash on hand at the balance sheet date. Receivables and payables expressed in a number expected to be received or paid at maturity. Liabilities and other assets are measured at the prevailing price when the item is acquired or item ¬ occurs (historical price). Even so, some of which are measured by the prices prevailing at the date of financial statements (the price goes), such as inventory under the rules of cost or market. In short, there is a dimension of time associated with the values of this money.
Translation methods can be classified into two types of methods that use a single exchange rate for the present re-translation of foreign currency balances to the equivalent value in domestic currency or a method that uses a variety of rates.